In recent years the e-mobility sector has grown rapidly in size and substance, transforming from a niche area to a fundamental technological and commercial reality, assuming a key role in the transformation of smart cities.
The enormous investment in smart and electric cars by American giants such as Google and Apple inspired Newsweek to devote a whole article and a front page of this weekly magazine to the eloquent title “Silicon Valley is going to Detroit”. This means that in the next decade a new scenario will open up, which will have a huge impact on the lives of individuals and the country.
The Tesla model is that which is most likely to be adopted, i.e. computer cars with high-performance processors with sensors able to activate automated driving routes while providing information on traffic conditions, monitoring the area, and measuring pollution and all the other environmental components, which are currently measured by fixed stations.
In short, an environmental and technological revolution, with a Big Brother on board the car with us, and major repercussions for the car industry. The main consideration will no longer be the engine but the battery and its computer. Furthermore, if the Tesla model is adopted, we will see an increase in self-generated green energy from photovoltaics.
The increase of this form of sustainable mobility within urban contexts can be associated both with its suitability in meeting the needs of users and with demands to reduce polluting gas emissions and noise pollution, resulting in development by car manufacturers of engines with lower emissions. According to the latest report from ACEA (Associazione dei Costruttori Europei [European Automobile Manufacturers’ Association]), during the first three months of 2016, the registration of so-called “ecological” cars, driven by electric cars, rose by 6.4%.
Environmental concerns have led national and European policy makers to take steps in order to create a regulatory and economic (support measures) framework able to support the growth and development of the sector, with particular focus on the re-charging infrastructure, a key element for the exponential development of this type of vehicle. This, therefore, is the scenario where the European guidelines come into play. By 2020, they require each member state to ensure that 10% of the mobility sector’s consumption comes from renewable sources and to develop recharging infrastructures for the use of alternative fuels (Directive 2009/28/EC).
At a national level, the transposition of the European Directives, which took place with the publication of specific legislative instruments aimed at encouraging the development of mobility through low-emission vehicles (Law No. 134 of 7 August 2012), together with the definition by the Ministry of Infrastructure and Transport of the “National Infrastructure Plan for the recharging of vehicles powered by electricity (PNIRE [Piano Nazionale infrastrutturale per la ricarica dei veicoli alimentati a energia elettrica]”, make up the regulatory framework for the creation of the charging infrastructure for electric vehicles.